Antepartum Haemorrhage Causes, Diagnose, Symptoms and Treatment

After the 24th week, however, when the child is viable, such bleeding is known as antepartum haemorrhage. Here we introduce the Antepartum Haemorrhage Causes, Diagnose, Symptoms and Treatment.

Types of antepartum haemorrhage

There are mainly 3 types of antepartum haemorrhage as below.

  • Accidental antepartum haemorrhage (abruptio placentae) is a comparatively infrequent condition in which the placenta is commonly implanted in the upper part of the uterus but separate from it prematurely and generally results in vaginal bleeding.
  • Placenta praevia is a condition in which the placenta, alternatively of being linked to the upper part of the uterus, is touched to the lower part in the region of the lesser uterine segment or the cervix. Accidental haemorrhage is frequently related with pain low in the abdomen.
  • Incidental antepartum haetnorrhage is haemorrhage which appears from the venereal tract but not from the site of the placenta or its implantation. Such haemorrhage may produce from injury, infection, ulcers on the neck of the womb, polyps or, most normally, the onset of labour.

Causes of Antepartum Haemorrhage

The causes of Antepartum Haemorrhage are various. Main causes of it are as below.

Abruptio placentae or accidental haemorrhage

Placenta praevia

Placenta praevia

Placental abruption

Uterine rupture

Unclassified

Unknown aetiology.

Vasa praevia (rare)

Treatment of Antepartum Haemorrhage

  • The treatment of Antepartum Haemorrhage differs based on different cause of it. Generally speaking, the below measures can be taken for the treatment of it.
  • Admit to hospital, even if bleeding is only a very small amount. There may be a large amount of concealed bleeding with only a small amount of revealed vaginal bleeding.
  • Resuscitation can be inadequate because of under-estimation of blood loss and misleading maternal response. A young woman may maintain a normal blood pressure until sudden and catastrophic decompensation occurs 2 .
  • No vaginal examination should be attempted at least until a placenta praevia is excluded by ultrasound. May initiate torrential bleeding from a placenta praevia.
  • Gentle palpation of the abdomen to determine gestational age of fetus, presentation and position.
  • Take blood for full blood count and clotting studies. Cross match as heavy loss may require transfusion.
  • With every episode of bleeding, a Rhesus negative woman should have a Kleihauer test and be given prophylactic anti-D immunoglobulin 3 .
  • Arrange urgent ultrasound AND Fetal monitoring .